MR

K.UlliL . HAD CL .

NATIONAL LIBRARY! S* NO A POM.

I

NATIONAL UBRARY SINGAPORE

IIEIIIIIUII

B03013680J

The DR. CARL ALEXANDER GIBSON-HILL COLLECTION (born 19 H: died 1963)

presented to the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SINGAPORE

by

MRS, LOKE YEW in fulfilment of the intention of her son LOKE WAN THO (born 1915: died 1964)

ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCHES

IN JAVA,

AND THE NEIGHBOURING ISLANDS.

BY

THOMAS HORSFIELD, M. D. F. L. S. M. G. S.

Uonfccm :

PRINTED FOR KINGSBURY, PARBURY, & ALLEN,

LEADENHALL STREET.

1824.

NA1.0 BRARY, HJUNW65

M-Dowall, Printer, <H>, Laadcnhall Street.

TO THE

HONOURABLE THE COURT OF DIRECTORS

OF THE

THIS WORK

IS, WITH THEIR PERMISSION, RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED,

BY THEIR GRATEFUL AND

OBEDIENT SERVANT,

THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE.

AN the prosecution of this Work, the plan originally offered to the Public has been adhered to with every possible degree of solicitude. The design of the under- taking was to exhibit accurate Figures, accompanied by detailed descriptions, of the most interesting Quadrupeds and Birds collected during my residence in Java. It was also stated, in the commencement, that, by the liberal permission of the Honourable Court of Directors of the East India Company, I had been enabled to avail myself of the valuable Collections forwarded by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles from Sumatra. The arrangement which has been made of these Collections under the orders of the Court, in the Company's Museum at the India House, has greatly facilitated the means of introducing into this Work various subjects which had not previously been given to the Public.

Throughout the continuance of these Zoological Researches, I have unin- terruptedly enjoyed the support of the Artists originally engaged for the illustra- tions. To AVilliam Danieli, Esq. I am indebted for the drawings of the Quadrupeds, and Mr. William Taylor has, with great assiduity, afforded the aid of his skill in the Engravings. The greatest proportion of the Birds lias been drawn on stone by Mr. Auguste Pelletier, who has likewise been charged with the superintendence of their colouring. In several of the Birds Mr. John Curtis has afforded his assistance, both in the drawing and engraving : the illustration of the new genera requiring a minuteness of detail, which could not with equal effect be given on stone. Every exertion has been made to preserve the same style of execution in which the

f

PREFACE.

Work commenced. In order to afford sufficient time for the execution of the Plates, a small extension of the period in which the successive Numbers were engaged to be delivered, has been required : this, I trust, will not be a subject of disapprobation.

I request the supporters of this Work to accept my cordial acknowledgements : I am happy to enumerate among these, many Gentlemen who have, since my arrival in England, honoured me with their friendship.

To the distinguished patronage of the Honourable Court of Directors or the East India Company, the origin and progress of this Work is in a great measure indebted. At the conclusion, T entreat the permission of the Honourable Court to tender to them the tribute of my sincerest gratitude and obligation. The Work was originally dedicated to this Honourable Body, and with all its imperfections, it affords an additional evidence of the patronage afforded to science in their oriental possessions.

As the Public has been prepared to expect a more general report of my Researches, in consequence of the favourable reference to them by the distinguished and enterprizing Author of the History of Java, in the Preface to that Work, I embrace this opportunity to state, that although some delay has occurred in the publication, the materials collected have not remained unexamined or undescribed, I am happy to announce, that my friends, William S. Macleay, Esq. and Robert Brown, Esq., have, with great disinterestedness, undertaken to give to the Public that part of my Entomological and Botanical Collections which may be most interesting, and a more particular notice of the Works proposed will appear without delay.

<&mmX Catalogue of Sabanrsc Btr&s,

ARRANGED IN THE

MUSEUM OF THE HONOURABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY.

THE first column contains the names of the Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java, read before the Linnean Society of London, April 18, 1820, and published in the XIHth Volume of their Transac- tions. The second column exhibits the changes which have been occasioned since tliis period, by the rejection of topical names, by the introduction of several names employed in the Nouveau Recueil de Planches coloriees d'Oiseaux, published by M. M. Temminck and Laugier, and by other necessary alterations in Nomenclature.

Ordo I. ACCIPITRES.

Fam. II. Falcon id t.

Falco cserulcsceiiK, Linn, Falco Tinnimculus, Linn. Falco severus, H. Falco Pondicerianus, Gm. Falco Ichthyaetus, H. Falco Soloensis, H. Falco melanopterus, Daud. Falco Bido, H. Falco Limneeetus, H.

Falco Aldrovandi, Reinw.

Falco cuculoides, T.

Falco Bacha, Le Vaiil.

Fam. III. Strigid.e.

Strix Javanica, Gm. Strix badia, H.

Strix Selo-pulo, H. Strix rufescens, H.

Strix pagodaruiii, T.

An vcre distincta a S. Lempiji ?

Strix castanoptera, H.

Strix Lempiji, H. Strix orientalis, H. Strix Ketupu, H.

Strix noctula, Reinw. Strix strepitans, T. Strix Ccyloncnsis, Lath.

GENERAL CATALOGUE.

Ordo II. PASSERES.

FAM. IV. HlRCNDINID.fl.

Podargus Javensis, H.

Caprimulgus affinis, H.

Caprimulgus macrourus, H.

Hirundo csculenta, Osb. It.

Hirundo fuciphaga, Act. Holm. p. 151.

Hirundo KIccho, H.

Fam. V.

Leptopteryx lcucorhynchos, II.

Lanius Ben let, H.

Edolius forficatus, H,

Edolius cineraceus, Le IV////.

Edoiius Malabaricus.

Ceblepyris Javcnsis, H.

Ceblepyris striga, H.

Muscicapa flammea, Gm.

Muscicapa obscura, //.

Muscicapa Indigo, //.

Muscicapa Banyurnas, H.

Muscicapa Javanica, Sparrm.

Tardus ha^morrhous, II.

Turdus aitiaenus, H. Gracula saularis, Linn.

Turtlus nundanensis, Gm. Turdus macrourus, Gm. T urdus analis, H. Turdus bimaculatus, H. Turdus strigatus, H. Turdus viridis, H. Turdus cbalybeus, H. Turdus Javanicus, H. Turdus varius, H. Turdus cyaneus, H.

if * i ( *■

Turdus flaviroslris, H. Turdus ochroceplialus, Gm. Turdus gularis, H. Turdus dispar, H.

Podargus comutus, T.

Hirundo longipennis, Reinw ? Cypselus longipennis, 7*. f

Sylviad.e.

Artamus leucorliynchos, VmlK Edolius longus, Le Vail/.

Edolius retifer, T. Ceblepyris papuensis, T. Turdus oricntalis, Ltiih.

Muscicapa hirundinacea, Reinw.

Muscicapa cantatrix, T.

Muscicapa Psidii, Gm. To be cancelled.

Lamprotornis cantor, T. Turdus concolor, corrected, H.

Turdus glaucinus, corrected, H. Pitta glaucina, T. Myophonus metallicus, T.

GENERAL CATALOGUE

Timalia pileata, H.

Iora scapularis, H.

Oriolus Galbula, Lath. var. 5.

Oriolus xanthonotus, IT.

Melliphaga Javeasis, H.

I rbn a puella, H.

Myiothera affinis, H.

Pastor griseus, £T.,

Pastor Jalla, H.

Pastor tricolor, H.

Motacilla speciosa, H.

Motacilla flava, Linn.

Sylvia Javanica, H.

Sylvia niontana, H.

Saxicola fruticola, H.

Beach yfteryx nun i tana. H.

Brachypteryx, (?) sepiaria, H.

Megalurus palustris, H.

Oriolus codiinchinetisis, Briss.

To be cancelled. Edolius pucllus, T. Pitta cyanura, T. Pastor cristatellus, T.

Enicurus coronatus, T.

Saxicola caprata, corrected, H.

Malurus marginalis, Reimc.

FAM. VI. Fill Xi, II. LAD K.

Mirafra Javanica, H. Paras atriceps, H.

Fringilla Philippina. Loxia Philippina, Linn* Fringilla Manyar, H. Fringilla punicea, IT.

Fringilla punctularia. Loxia punctularia, Linn. Fringilla striata. Loxia striata, Linn, Fringilla prasina, H.

Fringilla oryzivora- Loxia oryzivora, Linn. Fringilla Maja. Loxia Maja, Linn, Sitta frontalis, H.

Fam. VII.

Fringilla Amandava, Linn. Fringilla sphecura, T. Sitta velata, T.

CoRVID.E. *

Colaris orientalis, Cuv. Eulabcs religiosa, Cuv. Phrjsnotrix Temia, H. Fregihis Enea, H,

Crypsirina Teinmia, Vieilt. Corvus Enca, corrected, H.

Fam. IX. Certhiad.'E.

Pomatorhixls montanus, II. Prinia familiaris, H.

GENERAL CATALOGUE.

Orthotomds sepium, //. Cinnyris affinis, H. Cinnyris longirostra, H, Nectarinia Javanica, H. Nectarinia pectoralis, H. Nectarinia eximia, H.

Dicseum cruentatum, Cuv. Dicasum flavum, H. Eurylaimus Javanicus, H. Merops Javanicus, H. Merops Urica, H. Alccdo Meninting, H. Alcedo Biru, H* Alcedo tridactyla, Linn. Alcedo leucocephala, Gm. Alcedo Coromanda, Lath. Alcedo chlorocepliala, Gm. Alcedo sacra, Gm. Alcedo melanoptera, Dacelo pulchelk, H,

Nectarinia inornata, T. Nectarinia longirostris, T. Nectarinia Jepida, T. Nectarinia eximia, T. Nectarinia barbata, T.

Yaw. X. Mekoi'JI>.£.

Eurylaimus Horsfieldii, T. Merops Savigny ? T. Merops quadricolor, Le Vaill.

Alcedo omnicolor, T.

F.\M, XL BlJCERIDiK.

Buceros Rhinoceros, Linn.

Buceros undulatus, Shaw. B. plieatus, Shaw*

Buceros albirostris, B. Malabaricus, Lath.

Ordo III. SCANSORES. Fam. XII. Picidjs.

Picus Javensis, H. Picus Bengalensis, Linn* Picus miniatus, Gm. Picus puniceus, H. Picus strictus, H. Picus minor, Linn. Picus tristis, H. Picus tiga, //.

Picus leucogaster, T, Picus dimidiatus, 7*.

Picus Goensis, Gm. Picus analis, T. Picus poicilophus, T.

GENERAL CATALOGUE.

FAM. XIII. CUCULIDJI.

Phremcophaus melanognatbus, H. Phomicophaus Javanicus, H. Cuculus orientals, Linn. Cuculus fugax, H. Cuculus flavus, Gm. Cuculus canorus, Linn. Cuculus Pravata, H. Cuculus lugubris, H. Cuculus xantborbynchus, H. Cuculus basalis, H. Centropus aifinis, H. Centropus Bubutus, H. Centropus lepidus, H.

Bucco Javensis, H. Bucco Philippensis, Lin?i, Bucco australis, //.

Ph. Rouverdin, Le VailL Coccyzus chrysogaster, T.

To be cancelled.

Cuculus cbalcites, lllig. ?

Centropus Philippensis, Cuo. To be cancelled.

Fam. XIV. Bucconid*.

Bucco Kotoreas, T\

Bucco gularis, T. Fam. XV. Psittacidj:.

Psittacus Osbeckiij Lath. Psittacus Galgulus, Linn.

Var. /5, Le Coulacissi, Buff.

Coluniba vernans, Linn. Coiumba Htoralis, T. Coluinba melanocephala, Gm. Columba tigrina, T. Columba risoria, Linn. Columba Bantamensis, Sparrm. Columba bitorquata, T, Columba Javanica, 7*. Columba Ainboinensis, Linn. Columba fenea, Linn.

Ordo IV. GALLINACE/E. Fam. XVI. Columbade.

GENERAL CATALOGUE.

Perdix Chinensis, Linn, Perdix Javanica, Lath. Perdix orientalis, H, Ortygis luzoniensis, Lath.

Gallus Javanicus, H. Gallus Bankiva, T,

Pavo Javanicus, H.

Yanellus melanogaster, BechsL Vanellus tricolor, H. Charadrius Cantianus, Lath. Charadrius pluviahs, Linn, Charadrius Asiaticus, Grn. Charadrius pusillus, H. Cursorius Isabellinus, Meyer f Glareola orientalis, Leach.

Ciconia Javanica, H. Ciconia leucocephala, T. Ardea cinerea, Lath. Ardea purpurea, Linn. Ardea Egretta, Linn, Ardea affinis, H. Ardea Malaccensis, Gm. Ardea speciosa, H. Ardea nycticorax, Linn. Ardea sinensis, Gm*

Fam. XVIL Tetraonid^.

Perdix personata, H, Zool. Res, VIII.

Fam. XVIII. Phasianid.e.

Gallus furcatus, T,

1 AM. XIX. PAVONU>£.

II Pavo muticus, Linn.

Ordo V. GRALL^E. Fam. XX. Charadriada.

Fam. XXI. Ardeao^e.

Ciconia capilJata, T.

Ardea russata, T.

Nauie to be cancelled, as not distinct from A. speciosa. Name to be cancelled, as not distinct from A. lepida.

GENERAL CATALOGUE.

Ardea flavicollis, Lath? Ardea lepida, H. Ardea nebulosa, H. Ardea Javanica, H. Ardea cinnamomea, Gm.

An vere distineta ab A. lepida ? Ardea virescens, Linn.

Fam. XXIL Trimmd*.

Numcnius Phaeopus, Lath. Scolopax saturata, H* Scolopax Gallinago, Linn. Totanus affinis, H. Totanus hypoleucos, T. Totanus acuminatus, H. Totanus tenuirostris, H. Totanus Damacensis, H. Totanus Glottis, BevhsL Totanus Javanicus, H. Rynchaia orientalis, H. Limosa melanura, Leisl. Tringa subarquata, T. Hiinantopus melanoptcrus, Meyer.

Parra superciliosa, H. Forphyrio Indicus, JET. Gallinula gularis, H. Gallinula lugubris, H, Gallinula orientalis, H. Gallinula Javanica, //. Rail us gularis, H. Rallus fuscus, Linn. Rallus quadristrigatus, H. Fulica atra, Linn.

Scolopax Terek, Lath. R. varia, T.

Limosa Terek, T.

Fam. XXIIL Rallid.e.

P. smaragdinus, T.

Name to be cancelled, as not distinct from the following. Gallinula phcenicurus, Penn. hid. Zoo/. Gallinula superciliosa, T.

Ordo VL PALMIPEDES. Fam. XXIV. Pelecanid.e.

Pelecanus Philippensis, Cm* Pelecanus Javanicus, H.

Name to be cancelled, as not speciikally distinct from the former

GENERAL CATALOGUE.

Carbo Javanicus, H. Plotus melanogastcr, Gm.

Podiccps minor, Lath.

Carbo Africanus, Lath.

Fam. XXV. Coltmbid.c.

Fam. XXVI. Larid*.

Sterna minuta, Linn. Sterna Javanica, H. Sterna media, H. Sterna grisea, H. Sterna affinis, H,

Anas Javanica, H.

Sterna welanogaster, T.

Fam XXVII. Anati^e.

|| Anas arcuata, Cuv.

i

Tli£ following order is proposed for the arrangement of the Subjects and Plates in the binding of the Volume. To facilitate the reference to the Plates of Illustration, the order in which the Subjects were given in the successive Numbers, is added. The Plates of Illustration should be bound, in the order of publication, at the end of the Volume.

MAMMALIA. BIRDS.

Simia syndactyly.

Semnopithecus Maurus.

Semnopithecus Pyrrhus.

Tarsius Bancanus.

Cheiromeles torquatus.

Xyctinomus tenuis.

Rhinolophus larvatus. - Rhinolophus nobilis. r— Vespertilio Temminckii. i - Pteropus Javanicus.

Pteropus rostratus.

Tupaia Javanica.

Tupaia tana.

Ursus Malayanus.

Culo orientalis.

Mydaus meliceps.

Viverra Musanga.

Viverra Rasse.

Mangusta Javanica.

Lutra leptonyx.

Felis Javanensis.

Felis Sumatrana.

Felis gracilis.

Mus setifer. /

Sciurus insignis.

Sciurus Plantani.

Sciurus bi color.

Pteromys genibarbis.

Pteromys lepidus.

Rhinoceros sondaicus.

Tapirus Malayanus.

Cervus Muntjak.

Falco Ichthyaetus. Falco carulescens. Falco Limnteetus. Stri\ badia. Podargus Javanensis, Muscicapa Banyumas. Muscicapa lurundinacea. Muscicapa Indigo. Turdus varius. Turd us cyaneus. Tim alia pileata. Timalia gularis. I bra scapular is. Oriolua xanthonotus. Irena puella. Motacilla speciosa. Brachypterix montana. Phrenotrix Teraia. Poroatorhinus montanus. Prinia familiaris. Calyptomena viridis. Eurylaimus Javanicus. Alcedo Biru. Dacelo pulchella. Phaenicophaus JavaniciH. Cuculus lugubris. Cuculus xanthorhyncus. Centropus Philippensis. Pcrdix |>ersonata. Ardea speciosa. Scolopax saturata. Parra supereiliosa. Anas arcuata.

ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCHES, &c.

MAMMALIA.

No. Felis Javanensis. Felis gracilis. Viverra Musanga. Tapirus Malayanus.

No. //.— Mydaus meliceps. Gulo orientalis, Tarsius Bancanus. Felis Sumatrana.

No. ///.— Tupaia Javanica. Tupaia tana. Simia syndactyly Pteropus rostratus.

No. /r.— Semnopithecus Maurua. Ursus Malay anus. Pteromys genibarbis. Pteropus Javanicus.

No. J7.-— Nyctinomus tenuis.

Mangusta Javanica. Sciurua insignia. Pteromys lepidus.

No. /7.— Cervus Muntjak. Viverra Rasae. Rhinolophus larvatus. Rhinoceros sondaicus.

No. VII.— Sciurua Plantani.

Lutra leptonyx. Seinnopithecus Pyrrhus. Rhinolophus nobilis.

No. Fill. Sciurus bicolor. Mus setifer.

Vespertilio Temmmckii. Cheiromeles torquatus.

BIRDS.

Irena puella, male. Irena puella. female. Phrenotrix Temia. Motacilla speciosa.

Eurylaimus Javanicus. Podargus Javanensis. T urdus varius. Dacelo pukhelk.

Falco Ichthysetus.

Fal co cserulescens.

Timalia pileata. Timalia gularis.

Cuculue xanthorhynchus,

Calyptomena viridis. Strix badia. Alcedo Biru, Turd us cyan ens,

Pomatorhinus m on tan us. Phcenicophaus Javanicus. Scolopax saturate Muscicapa Indigo.

I6ra scapularis. Falco Limnseetus. Oriolus xanthonotua. Centropus Philippensis.

Brachypterix montana. Ardea speciosa,

Muacicapa Banyumas. M. hinmdinacen. Cuculus lugubris.

Prioia familiaris. Perdix personata. Parra superciliosa. Anas arena ta.

ERRATA.

Article IRENA PUELLA , second page, four lines from the bottom, for Cornirostres read Deniirottres. Article PTEROMYS GENIBARBIS, first page, sixth line, for Petaurus read Petaitristus.

SIMIA SYNDACTYLA.

Ord, IV* Quadrumanes, Cuvier. V* Famille, les Singes. Ord. I. Primates, Linn. Syst.

Ord. IE Pollicata, IUiger. Fam. 1, Quadruraana. SIMIA, Linn. Briss. Schreb. Cuvier. Hylobates, Uliger, Pit hecus, Geoffroy-Saint-Hdah r

Simla aterrima, collo pectoreque nudis, in dice et digito medio podariorum coadunatis. Siamangt of the Malays.

Simia syndactyla, Sir T. S. Raffleis Cat of a ZooL Coll made in Sumatra, Tr. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 241, 1821.

TO the following description of the Simia syndactyla it may be proper to premise, that the generic name is employed, by Sik Stamford Raffles, according to the classification of Linnaeus. M. Cuvier, in preserving in the order of Quadrumanes the two Genera of Simia and Lemur, has found it necessary to divide each into several Sub-genera ; and the celebrated Illigcr, in Ms Prodromus Systematis Mammalium. et Avium, has established among those Quadrumana, which, according to his views, agree in generic characters with the Simia Lar, a distinct genus, denominated Hylobates: this is arranged immediately after the genus Simia, and is distinguished principally by the proportionally greater length of the anterior extremities, which, when the animal stands erect, reach to the ground, by the naked callosities on the buttocks, by a comparatively short muzzle, and a facial angle of sixty degrees. Agreeably to the Tableau des Quadrumanes of M. Geofiroy-Saint-Hilaire, contained in the XIX* Volume of the Annales du Museum, the Simia syndactyla belongs to the genus Pithecus.

The Simia syndactyly as well as the Tupaia tana, which is described in the preceding article, form part of the Zoological Collection which was forwarded to the Honourable East India Company, by Sir Stamford Raffles, from Sumatra;

SIMIA SYNDACTYLA.

the arrangement of which is now in progress at their Museum at the India House, together with that of a general series of Quadrupeds and Birds from Java and other Islands of the Eastern Archipelago. Three specimens of the Siamang, of different sexes and ages, are placed in that Museum ; and, with the permission of the Honour- able Court of Directors, I am enabled to illustrate the description of Sir Stamfoed Raffles, contained in the thirteenth volume of the Transactions of the Linnean Society, by a figure of our animal from the pencil of Mr. Daniell, and to add some details regarding its dimensions, form, and bony fabric.

" The Simia syndactyla is of a jet-black colour throughout; it is upwards of three feet in height, and of a robust and muscular frame. It agrees with the Simla Lar of Linnaeus, in being tailless, having naked callosities, and arms reaching to the feet. It differs, however, essentially in having the index and middle toes, or rather fingers, of the hind feet united as far as the middle of the second phalanx ; in having two loose and naked folds of skin on the throat, which I have observed to be occasionally inflated with air ; and in being entirely black, with the exception of a few brown hairs on the chin, which appear to become gray with age. The hair is long and soft ; the face is without hair, and black, as are also the breasts of the female. The orbits of the eye are circular, and remarkably prominent. The canine teeth are long."— Tr. Linn. Soc.

The Dimensions of the largest specimen, at the Museum at the India House, are the following:

Feet Inches.

Entire height from the heel to the summit of the head 3 2

Length of the head and neck 0 6

the arm 1 0\

the fore arm 1

the hand and fingers 0

the thigh bone 0 8^

the leg 0 8

the foot 0

The skull of an adult subject, which I examined at the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, affords the following remarks : Its dimensions longitudinally, from the most projecting point of the front teeth to the occiput, are five inches and two lines, and its height three inches and six fines. The general form is oblong, increasing very slightly hi breadth posteriorly. The orbits advance greatly in front, by means of the frontal-margin projecting forward, being continued

SI MIA SYNDACTYLA.

around the orbit, and forming a short tube surrounding the eye. The temporal- ridges on each side are very prominent, and run parallel to each other from the frontal-margin to the occiput, separated about one inch. The posterior part of the skull is terminated abruptly by a plain surface, which is bounded by a promi- nent ridge The teeth exhibit the following particulars : In the upper jaw, the intermediate front teeth are short, broad, and subconvergent ; the next on each side is distant and narrower. The canine teeth stand separated from the other teeth, are very large at the base, and although in the specimen the points are broken off, they have the appearance of having projected far beyond the other teeth. There are two bicuspidati and three quadricuspidati on each side, having the general form of these teeth as well in the Simla Satyrus of Limueus, as in man ; their surfaces arc much worn by trituration. In the lower jaw the front teeth are disposed uniformly, with a small space between each ; here the two intermediate teeth are smallest, and they are generally narrower than the front teeth in the upper jaw, and much worn by trituration. The canine teeth greatly exceed the front teeth in length ; they tend obliquely outward, and have an additional projection or gradus at the base. The first grinder in the Siamang, as well as in several other Quadrumana from the Eastern Islands, has a character essentially different from the first bicuspidatus in man. It presents one high, acute, conical or pyramidal point, projecting consider- ably beyond the second bicuspidatus, with an oblique edge, corresponding to the canine tooth in the upper jaw, with a less prominent tubercle near the base. The second bicuspidatus has the same form as the corresponding tooth in the upper jaw; to this follow, on each side, three quadricuspidati, resembling those in the upper jaw, and equally worn on the surface by trituration.

A comparison of the skeleton of a young subject of Simia syndactyla, lately obtained from Sumatra, and of an adult skeleton of Simia Lar, having been afforded to me by Joshua Brookes, Esq. at his Museum in Blenheim Street, with distin- guished liberality, I am enabled to add the following remarks in further illustration of the bony fabric of our animal. The head in the Simia syndactyla is more rounded posteriorly ; it has an obovate form, and the orbital-margins and temporal ridges less developed. The canine teeth extend but slightly beyond the front teeth. Of three grinders, which are as yet apparent, the two posterior are quadricuspidati, with considerably projecting points; and the secondary front teeth present a serrated margin, as they do in man on their first appearance. The bones of the anterior extremities are proportionally longer than in Simia Lar, and extend beyond the malleolus quite to the ground ; the bones of the thumb are also more lengthened and slender. The skull of the adult Simia Lar agrees strikingly with that of the adult Simia syndactyla ; it has the same oblong form ; the orbital-margins, and the annular-

SIMIA SYNDACTYLA.

ridges surrounding the orbits, are equally prominent, and the temporal-ridges extend to the occiput, at regular distances from each other, in a parallel manner. The canine teeth are considerably elongated.

The following remarks have presented themselves on a review of the specimens deposited at the Museum in the India House. The most striking character is the excessive length of the anterior extremities j this is already shewn by the dimen- sions given above. The head is oblong and rounded posteriorly. The neck is very short. The face is nearly naked ; a few very short decumbent hairs are scattered sparingly on the nose and cheeks. On the upper lip and chin the beard is distri- buted, consisting of grayish hairs, having an uniform oblique direction.

The muzzle is short, and the facial angle between 60 and 65 degrees. The nose is flat and depressed above, but rises below abruptly, with a cartilaginous emi- nence, in which the nearly circular nostrils are pierced from the sides in an oblique direction. At its extremity7 this eminence is obtuse, and united to the upper lip by a narrow gradually attenuated apex, which forming a cartilaginous arch, gives a peculiar character to the Siamang.

The orbital-margin is very prominent, and the frontal-bone rises above the eyes obliquely, writh a very gradual inclination backward. This part is covered with hairs, which have a different character from those on other parts of the body ; they are regular and straight, and being closely applied to the surface of the head, form a gradually rising plain, on which the hair appears as if dressed or rendered smooth by art. The ears are closely applied to the head, margined, and have externally the same structure as in man : they are in great measure concealed by the hairy covering of the lateral parts of the head. The trunk is rather slender, and the abdomen is not distended as in the Orang-utan. The buttocks have small callosities. The fingers of the hands of the anterior extremities are very slender, and of uncom- mon length; the thumb is of smaller dimensions than the lingers, and it -is removed so far back, that it scarcely extends beyond the metacarpal bones ; it appears, how- ever, to be calculated to be employed as an antagonist to the fingers. The nails of the thumb and fingers are uniform, slightly rounded and elevated in the middle. On the hands of the posterior extremities the fingers are proportionally small and slender. The index and the middle finger are closely united to the middle of the second phalanx. The thumb is long, robust, and placed nearer to the fingers than in the anterior extremities ; the nail is even, while the nails of the fingers resemble those of the anterior extremities. The throat and neck in young animals are com- pletely naked ; in the adult subjects the nakedness extends to the breast, and is only

SIMIA SYNDACTYLY.

partially interrupted by a narrow band of hairs extending across the lower part of the neck. The folds of naked skin mentioned above in the description of the living animal, appear distinctly in the prepared specimens.

The hairy covering of the head and extremities affords a very peculiar character to the Simia syndactyla, and its thickness increases considerably the bulk of these parts. It consists of hairs close and woolly near the skin, united in small tufts, which diverge irregularly, and form a shaggy fleece, which invests the surface of our animal. The separate hairs are above two inches long, and on every part, except the head, they are slightly curved, so as to cause a somewhat frizzled appearance. The colour of these hairs is most intensely black.

Sir Stamford Raffles adds to the description above given, that the Siamangs are abundant in the forests near Bencoolen, where they are seen in large companies, making the woods echo with their loud and peculiar cry. Besides the specimens contained in the collection forwarded to England, he has recently procured a living Siamang, which is very tame and tractable ; in fact, he is never happy but when allowed to be in company with some one.

London, TuiLLthtd fa3Uek. JTih^bu.^. fkrtttty ZAtltn, L+tjUnhdZ .j>w/. MTttU .

SEMNOPITHECUS MAURUS.

Ord. IIu? Quadrumanes, Cuvier. 1™ Famille, les Singes.

Oed. I. Primates, Linn, Syst

Ord. II. Poll ic at a, IUiger. Fam. 2, Quadrumana.

SEMNOPITHECUS, Frdd. Cuv. Mamm. lithogr. 30. livrais. Si mia j Linn. Cuv. Schreb.

Cercopithecus, Briss. Erxleb. Cuv. IUig. Geoff.

Character essentialis. Laniarii superiores obsolete triangulares, interne longi- tudinaliter sulcati. Molares inferiores postremi quinquecuspidati. Pedes elongati.

Character naturalis. Denies continui, primores utrinque quatuor, supra inter- medii latiores, externi rotundati, infra externi basi gradu parvo laterali aucti ; Laniarii supra primoribus multo longiores, obsolete triangulares, subintorti, latere interno longitudinaliter sulcati, infra minus elongati verticales, subarcuati; Molares supra quinque, anteriores duo bicuspidati, acie interna minore breviore, postcriores trcs quadricuspidati aciebus prominulis subsequalibus ; infra quinque, primus secundo magis porrectus unieuspidatus acie obliqua sectoria, compressus, radicibus duabus inaequalibus mandibular oblique injunctus, pyramidahs quadri- laterus, lateribus ineequalibus, latere anteriore extus spectante maximo, oblique decurrente, attritu dentis laniarii superioris laevigata, basi incrassatus, de serie aliorum dentium oblique protrusus, secundus bicuspidatus postice gradu brevi transverso auctus, tertius et quartus quadricuspidati, postremus quinque- cuspidatus.

Rostrum mediocriter productum ; facies parte superiore plana, maxilla sub elongata ;

angulus facialis 45 graduum. V \dtus denudatus. Nasus basi depressus, attenu-

atus ; nares laterales oblongae seminulares horizontales. Auriculm marginata?. Corpus gracile. Cauda elongata laxa. Mamma duo pectorales cylindraceee. Pedes omnes manibus pentadactylis, graciles, elongati ; scelides antipedibus paulo

longiores: pollice maniculorum minuto a digitis remoto. Ungues pollicum

lamnares digitoruni subtegulares. Nates tyliis instruct®.

Affinitas. Hoc genus inter Cercopithecos, nuper a Cel. Fr6d. Cuviero rite defi- nitos, et Hylobates Cel. Illigeri, disponeiidum est

SEMNOPITHECUS MAUHUS.

Semnopithecus aterrimus, pectore abdoraine artubus intrinsecus eaudseque basi

subtus canis. Budeng, or Lutung, of the Javanese.

Lotong> of the Malays.— Sir T. S. Raffles'* Cat of a Zool Coll. made in Sumatra,

Tr. Linn. Soc. XIII. p. 247, 1821. Simia maura, Sckreb. Saugtk. I. p. 107, t. XXII. B, Simia maura, Gmel. Syst p, 35.

Simia maura, Div. 7. Cercopitheei : Bodd. Elen. anim* I. p. 60. Cercopithecus maura, Erxleh. Syst. Regn. anim. p. 41.

Cereopithecus maurus, Geoffir. St Hil. Tableau des Quadrnmanes. Ami, du 3Ius. T. XIX, p. 93-

Cercopithecus raaurus, Encycl. Method. Mammalog. p. 55. Par. M. A. G. Des-

marest, 1820. Le Maure, G. Cuv. he Regne animal, §c.p. 105. Middle sized black monkey, Edwards § Glean, p. 221, jf. 811. Guenon negre, Buff. Supp. tome 7, p. 80.

Negro monkey, Pennant Quadr. 3. Ed. p. 206, and Shaw's Gen. Zool. Vol. I. part 1, p. 47.

THE animal which I propose to consider in the present article, has long been known by the name of Simia Maura, and it has been received into all the systematic Catalogues. My principal object at present is to give an accurate figure, both of the adult and of the young subject, illustrated by its history, as I observed it in Java.

M. Cuvier enumerates the " Maure" among the Guenons, which comprise in the Regne animal a considerable number of the Cercopitheei of Erxleben; and M. M. Geoffroy and Desmarest have likewise arranged our animal in the genus Cercopithecus, as employed by them individually. The generic name placed at the head of this article, was first proposed by M. Fre'd. Cuvier in the 80th Livraison of the " Histoire naturelle des Mammiferes, in the description of the Cimepaye. Various animals of this order, forwarded from Sumatra by M. Duvaucel, enabled M. Cuvier to distinguish satisfactorily the " Maure," and several other Quadrumana, which will be mentioned in the sequel, from the Cercopitheei, or Guenons ; and in a late work by the same Author, entitled " Des dents des Mammiferes, considerees comme caracteres zoologiques," this genus is more accurately defined and illustrated by the details of the character of the teeth from the species now under consideration.

SEMNOPITHECUS MAURUS.

The Cimepaye of M. Fred. Cuvier, the Simpai of the Malays, was first com- municated to the Public by Sir Stamford Raffles, in his Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection made in the Island of Sumatra, under the name of Simia melalophos, &c. This Catalogue further contains two other new animals of this order, the Chingkau of the Malays Simia cristata, Raff.; and the Kra of the Malays Simia fascicularis, Raff; which correspond precisely in characters to the Simia melalophos. The genus Semnopithecus, defined by M. Cuvier, as far as it is known at present, consists of the three animals above mentioned of the Cercopithecus maurus, the Cercopithecus Entellus, ( Dufr.) and of another species, which has been added to the Museum of the Honourable Company from Java,

The name of Semnopithecus is applied to this genus by M. FrecL Cuvier, in consequence of the grave and serious character of the animals which compose it. With this character the Semnopitheci combine a peculiar system of dentition, which is described and illustrated by a figure in the work above mentioned. From the materials deposited in the Museum at the India House, I have prepared the following details, descriptive of the characters of the Semnopithecus maurus, as observed in Java.

It should first be observed, that the new genus which has been established by M. Frecl. Cuvier, should be placed, according to his views, in the order of Quadru- mana, between the Gibbons and the Guenons, or between the genus Hylobates of IUiger, and Cercopithecus, as defined at present. The comparisons which I have been enabled to make of the skulls of various Semnopitheci and of Gibbons, tend to confirm the propriety of this disposition. The skull of the Semnopithecus maurus in particular, has the same form as that of the adult Simia syndactyly ( Raff.) the Gibbon from Sumatra ; which was described in the last Number of these Researches. It is oblong, increasing in breadth posteriorly; the orbits advance greatly in front, and form a short tube surrounding the eye. The temporal ridges, although they do not project far from the surface of the skull, shew themselves in a slight eminence, arising from the orbital margin, and pursuing, parallel to each other, a longitudinal course towards the occiput. The abrupt termination of the posterior part of the skull is similar in the Semnopitheci that I have examined, and in the Gibbon ; but the muzzle in our genus is proportionally shorter than in Hylobates.

The teeth present the following particulars : the front teeth, in the upper jaw, are very regularly disposed ; the intermediate teeth are broad, with an uniform edge ; the lateral teeth are narrower, and rounded at the extremity. The canine

SEMNOPITHECUS MAURUS-

teeth are long, acuminate, triangular, slightly tending outward and twisted, with a deep longitudinal groove along the surface, that faces the opposite tooth, and an obsolete groove along the inner surface. Of the grinders, the second bicuspidate is somewhat larger than the first; they are both divided by a deep longitudinal groove, and the exterior point is considerably more prominent than the interior. The structure of the first and second of the quadricuspidate is perfectly uniform ; the crown is divided by a longitudinal and by a transverse groove, which constitute four elevated acute points : the third quadricuspidate differs from the others, in being terminated posteriorly by a very obscure ridge. Of the front teeth, in the lower jaw, the intermediate teeth are both longer and broader than the exterior teeth ; the latter have a slight curvature, and an obsolete heel at the base, which affords them a peculiar character. The canine teeth are shorter than the corre- sponding teeth in the upper jaw, nearly vertically disposed, slightly arched, rounded anteriorly, and obsoletely grooved posteriorly. The first grinder, which follows, has a structure essentially different from the first bicuspidate in man ; it is pyramidal, and terminates in a single point, which is very acute, and projects far beyond the regular series of grinders. The angular surfaces are unequal. The largest, which affords the most distinguishing character to this tooth, is situated anteriorly and exteriorly; it constitutes a very extensive oblique plane, which, in mastication, is applied to the broad interior surface of the canine tooth in the upper jaw : a smaller plane meets this from the opposite interior side of the tooth, and constitutes a sharp ridge, rising to the point of the tooth, which is somewhat obliquely trun- cated by a rough serrated edge : posteriorly, the tooth is defined by a smaller exterior and interior surface. The next tooth, which answers to the second bicuspidate, has generally the same form as the corresponding tooth in the upper jaw, but a small additional ridge exists posteriorly near the base of the crown. The first and second quadricuspidates agree with the corresponding teeth in the upper jaw, presenting individually four regular acute points; but the third lias an additional fifth point, at its posterior extremity, occupying nearly two-thirds of the breadth of the tooth, but, being above, less acute than the other points. It may be observed, that the grinders in the lower jaw are, upon the whole, narrower than these teeth in the upper jaw.

I refer to the Plate of Illustrations annexed to this Number for an accurate view of the teeth as above described. In letters A. B. C. B. E. F. § G. all the details are carefully represented, and the separate parts are referred to in the Expla- nation of the Plate. My principal object has been to exhibit accurately the first grinder in the lower jaw, so as clearly to illustrate the description : it is represented therefore both in connexion with the general series, and separated from it. The

SEMNOPITHECUS MAURUS.

peculiar structure of this tooth among the Quadrumana, first presented itself to me in the examination of the Simia Syndactyla (Raff); and in the description of that animal, it is represented as having " one high, acute, conical, or pyramidal point, projecting considerably beyond the second bicuspidate, with an oblique edge, corresponding to the canine tooth in the upper jaw:" and I have added an accurate view of this tooth from the materials forwarded from Sumatra by Sir Stamford Raffles, and deposited in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, which were referred to in the last Number of these Researches. At the same time, I have given a detailed view of the general series of the teeth of the adult Siamang, as belonging to the Gibbons, the genus most nearly allied to Semnopithccus. I have also added, from the Museum of Joshua Brooks, Esq., a view of the teeth of the Siamang, as they appear in the young subject. The peculiar structure of the first grinder in the lower jaw, as above described, shews itself in all Quadrumana, and affords a distinctive character between this order and man. Its degree of develop- ment in the Gibbon appears from the annexed Plate. In the various species of Semnopithccus it is still more developed, and particularly in the Chingkou and in the Kra. In the genus Cercopithecus it exists in the highest degree. M. Fre'd. Cuvier, in the work referred to, " Des dentes des mammiferes, &c," has also observed and described this structure in the Pongo, (which, according to the conjecture of the Baron G. Cuvier, is the adult Orang-utan,) as well as in the Cercopitheci and the other Quadrumana of the ancient continent. By systematic writers in general it is not mentioned. It requires a more particular degree of attention than it has received; and the generic descriptions of the Quadrumana hitherto given, are imperfect, as far as regards the character of the first grinder in the lower jaw.

The individuals belonging to the genus Semnopithecus are distinguished, more than any other Quadrumana, by a great length of body, and by a slenderness of the extremities. In the Simia melalophos, (Raff. ) the Simpai of the Malays, these characters shew themselves in the highest degree. The Semnopithecus maurus, which is now under consideration, has, on the whole, a stouter make, and more robust extremities: it is one of the largest species of this genus; one of the specimens in the Museum at the India House, measures two feet and three inches from the tip of the nose to the root of the tail. The general physiognomy of the animals belonging to this genus is that of the Cercopitheci ; but they have a peculiar character in the flatness of the face, and in the attenuated form of the body from the breast to the loins. The form of the head of the Semnopithecus maurus is already exhibited in the description of the skull : it is lengthened from the forehead to the occiput, compressed at the sides, considerably rounded posteriorly, and

SEMNOPITHECUS MATTRTjS.

narrowed at the jaws. The general character of the face is a flatness above, and a protrusion of the maxillae ; but the appearance of the face differs greatly in old and in young subjects. The maxillae become extended as the animal advances in age, and in young subjects the facial angle is proportionally greater.

The face is regularly circumscribed by hairs, which are long, and closely applied to the head ; the forehead, which is gradually sloping, is entirely concealed by them, The orbits of the eye are rather prominent, and the bones of the nose short. The nose consists of an angular ridge, which is considerably elevated between the eyes, and terminates, without any fleshy protuberance, by a membrane which is gradually attenuated below, and on each side of which the nostrils are placed. These are large, oblong, slightly curved, and pass backward into the cranium, in a horizontal direction. From the termination of the nose to the mouth, a considerable space intervenes ; but the lips are small and thin, so as to exhibit, when slightly retracted, the interior of the mouth. The chin is short and small ; a circle of gray hairs incloses the mouth in the adult animal ; and on the chin the hairs have a disposition downward, so as to exhibit the appearance of a beard. The upper part of the face is nearly naked ; a few straggling, stiff hairs are scattered on the cheeks and the upper lip, and on the more prominent part of the nose an interrupted series is observed. The irides of the eyes are of a dark brown colour. The ears are concealed from view by the long hairs which cover the lateral parts of the head ; they are margined, and both in form and disposition of external parts, closely resemble these organs in man. The neck is short, and considerably contracted. The trunk is of great length, broad and robust about the shoulders and the breast, and gradually of smaller dimensions towards the loins. The buttocks are marked with very large, rough callosities. The mammae in the adult female, are lengthened and cylindrical. The tail is as long as the body and head taken together ; in some individuals, and particularly in young subjects, it exceeds these parts in length : it is cylindrical during the greatest part of its length ; the base is gradually tapering, and the tip is thickened, and terminated by a close tuft of long hairs, of an ovate form.

The most distinguishing character of the animals of this genus is the great length of the extremities : the arms and forearms are particularly slender ; the posterior extremities are more lengthened and more robust ; so that in the most usual attitude of moving, the rump is considerably elevated. The hands and fingers of the anterior extremities have a length and delicacy proportioned to these members; the thumb is very short and small, and removed far from the fingers. The hands of the posterior extremities are of extraordinary length, calculating, from the origin of

SEMNOPITHECUS MAURUS.

the tarsus,